What is Human Machine Interface?

July 26, 2011

A human machine interface (HMI) is an interface which permits interaction between a human being and a machine. Human machine interfaces vary widely, from control panels for nuclear power plants to the screen and input buttons on a cell phone. Designing such interfaces is a challenge, and requires a great deal of work to make the interface functional, accessible, pleasant to use, and logical. Some engineers specialize in developing human machine interfaces and changing the ways in which people interact with machines and systems.

Two components are needed in a human machine interface. The first is an input. A human user needs some way to tell the machine what to do, to make requests of the machine, or to adjust the machine. Examples of input devices include keyboards, toggles, switches, touch screens, joysticks, and mice. All of these devices can be utilized to send commands to a system or even an interlinked set of systems.

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Foto Captor

July 26, 2011

Hot Metal Detector System designed for harshest environments


General Description

The remarkable foto-captor is the leading hot product sensor throughout the world’s steel industry. Its highly advanced infrared radiation technology and design concept serve sophisticated industrial systems in metal manufacturing, heat treatment and glass making.

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Thermocouples – An Introduction

July 26, 2011

What is a thermocouple sensor?

A thermocouple is a sensor for measuring temperature. It consists of two dissimilar metals, joined together at one end. When the junction of the two metals is heated or cooled a voltage is produced that can be correlated back to the temperature. The thermocouple alloys are commonly available as wire.

What are the different thermocouple types?

A thermocouple is available in different combinations of metals or calibrations. The four most common calibrations are J, K, T and E. There are high temperature calibrations R, S, C and GB. Each calibration has a different temperature range and environment, although the maximum temperature varies with the diameter of the wire used in the thermocouple. Although the thermocouple calibration dictates the temperature range, the maximum range is also limited by the diameter of the thermocouple wire. That is, a very thin thermocouple may not reach the full temperature range. Click here to view a complete reference table for each thermocouple. The table includes international color codes for thermocouple alloys, temperature range and limits of error for almost every kind of thermocouple.

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July 24, 2011
Most building is equipped with a mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation system that consists of air-supply plants located in technical premises and includes: air intake with heat-insulated valve and flap, air filter, heating chamber and air cooler, ventilator, sound dumper, as well as automatic control of air parameters and anti-freezing thermo-elements control.

The ventilation system is equipped with modern filters for coarse and fine air purification. The exhaust ventilation system in offices and common areas is equipped with low-noise aggregates

The ventilation of the underground parking garage has a separate supply-and-exhaust system with sensors for carbon dioxide and methane that are connected to the main system controls.

In the event of a fire, the building is equipped with a smoke removal system that activates automatically and shuts down all the other ventilation systems. All technical areas that contain ventilation equipment have been soundproofed.

The ventilation system provides constant air refreshing as follows:
  • For office premises — 60 m3 per hour per 1 person
  • For conference rooms — 20 m3 per hour per 1 person
  • Per toilets — 75 m3 per hour.


July 24, 2011

According to Category B of the local fire safety regulations, fire detection equipment in all premises is including the following:

  • Smoke photo-electronic fire sensors
  • Manual fire indicators with built-in modules installed in emergency exits and escape routes.

Fire alarm system is equipped with an analogous fire alarm system coordinated from the main panel and includes: smoke and heat detectors, manual fire alarms with safe glass and fire detectors behind suspended ceilings.

Fire alarm system consists of three components:

When the fire alarm is activated:

  • The supply-and-exhaust ventilation system automatically switches off
  • The smoke removal system for the floor corridors and underground parking automatically switches on
  • The air supply system for staircases and elevator shafts automatically switches on
  • The voice and light warning system (flashing light strobes located by the loudspeakers near building entrances) automatically switches on
  • The elevators are lowered to the 1st floor, switch off and the elevator doors are opened
  • The fire alert is passed by radio channel to the main panel of fire department
Fire alarms have indicators for both normal and alerting states. Once the fire alarms have been activated, the main panel displays the location of the fire and smoke expansion.Fire Alarm System has the following fire fighting equipment:
  • Automatic water sprinkler system installed in each room
  • Nine manual fire nozzles connected to fire cocks by force-fire hoses on each floor
  • Three dry powder extinguishers in each fire cabin to localize fires
  • Built-in fire tank with 20 m3 of water reserve
  • Built-in pumping station for automatic fire fighting with an output of 141.1   m3/hour
The boiler room has a drencher type of automatic fire fighting system, and the diesel-generator room has a gas suppression type of system.


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