SUPPLY AND SEWAGE SYSTEM

July 24, 2011
The following water supply and sewage systems can be installed in building: 
  • Service water supply pipes constructed with an enameled inside surface
  • Fire fighting water supply piping
  • Hot water supply from a Buderus boiler
  • Consumer and industrial sewerage system Duker
  • Internal drainage system Rehau. 
Building’s water supply comes from the city water supply system through two separate inlets. A step-up pumping station,  should be installed to provide the necessary water pressure in the service water supply system and for the fire fighting water piping. This system also contains a mounted ultraviolet water disinfection device and a mechanical water fine filter.
All water supply and sewage systems are produced by famous companies from many countries.

 

 

 

 


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VENTILATION SYSTEM

July 24, 2011
Most building is equipped with a mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation system that consists of air-supply plants located in technical premises and includes: air intake with heat-insulated valve and flap, air filter, heating chamber and air cooler, ventilator, sound dumper, as well as automatic control of air parameters and anti-freezing thermo-elements control.

The ventilation system is equipped with modern filters for coarse and fine air purification. The exhaust ventilation system in offices and common areas is equipped with low-noise aggregates

The ventilation of the underground parking garage has a separate supply-and-exhaust system with sensors for carbon dioxide and methane that are connected to the main system controls.

In the event of a fire, the building is equipped with a smoke removal system that activates automatically and shuts down all the other ventilation systems. All technical areas that contain ventilation equipment have been soundproofed.

The ventilation system provides constant air refreshing as follows:
  • For office premises — 60 m3 per hour per 1 person
  • For conference rooms — 20 m3 per hour per 1 person
  • Per toilets — 75 m3 per hour.

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

July 24, 2011



The air conditioning of the office premises is based on a 4-pipe system produced by Wesper, a worldwide manufacturer. The air conditioning system functions on the “chiller-“fan-coil”- conditioner” principle that is used for the following types of space:

  • Office premises 
  • Restaurants 
  • Commercial premises
  • Administration premises, utility service rooms, dispatcher room, server room and room of boiler operator
  • Halls and vestibules 

The sources of cold are chillers, the two low-noise cooling machines manufactured by York (Great Britain), with productivity of 783 kW each, which works only on cooling. The fan-coils are channel-type conditioners embedded in the suspended ceilings in all the air conditioned premises. All pipes conducting cold to the fan-coils have heat insulators. In addition, to reduce the noise produced by the ventilation and refrigeration systems, special measures like having a resiliently supported base, sound insulation and sound dumpers have been taken.

The parameters of the air conditioning system are designed to provide comfort, namely:
  • 24-hour air conditioning maintaining comfortable microclimate parameters by using the combined supply and exhaust ventilation, with input air heating up to +18°С and humidification to 45% in the winter and cooling down to +20°С in the summer.
  • Further air temperature adjustment to comfortable parameters in each separate office is made through 4-pipe fan-coils with individual-zoned settings.
Recuperation sections of the combined supply-and-exhaust ventilation system help keep energy consumption low.







FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

July 24, 2011

According to Category B of the local fire safety regulations, fire detection equipment in all premises is including the following:

  • Smoke photo-electronic fire sensors
  • Manual fire indicators with built-in modules installed in emergency exits and escape routes.

Fire alarm system is equipped with an analogous fire alarm system coordinated from the main panel and includes: smoke and heat detectors, manual fire alarms with safe glass and fire detectors behind suspended ceilings.

Fire alarm system consists of three components:

When the fire alarm is activated:

  • The supply-and-exhaust ventilation system automatically switches off
  • The smoke removal system for the floor corridors and underground parking automatically switches on
  • The air supply system for staircases and elevator shafts automatically switches on
  • The voice and light warning system (flashing light strobes located by the loudspeakers near building entrances) automatically switches on
  • The elevators are lowered to the 1st floor, switch off and the elevator doors are opened
  • The fire alert is passed by radio channel to the main panel of fire department
Fire alarms have indicators for both normal and alerting states. Once the fire alarms have been activated, the main panel displays the location of the fire and smoke expansion.Fire Alarm System has the following fire fighting equipment:
  • Automatic water sprinkler system installed in each room
  • Nine manual fire nozzles connected to fire cocks by force-fire hoses on each floor
  • Three dry powder extinguishers in each fire cabin to localize fires
  • Built-in fire tank with 20 m3 of water reserve
  • Built-in pumping station for automatic fire fighting with an output of 141.1   m3/hour
The boiler room has a drencher type of automatic fire fighting system, and the diesel-generator room has a gas suppression type of system.

 



Pengertian Instrumentasi

July 14, 2011

Instrumentasi adalah alat-alat dan piranti (device) yang dipakai untuk pengukuran dan pengendalian dalam suatu sistem yang lebih besar dan lebih kompleks. Instrumentasi bisa berarti alat untuk menghasilkan efek suara, seperti pada instrumen musik misalnya, namun secara umum instrumentasi mempunyai 3 fungsi utama:
  • sebagai alat pengukuran
  • sebagai alat analisa, dan
  • sebagai alat kendali.
Instrumentasi sebagai alat pengukuran meliputi instrumentasi surveystatistik, instrumentasi pengukuran suhu, dll. Contoh dari instrumentasi sebagai alat analisa banyak dijumpai di bidang kimia dan kedokteran, misalnya, sementara contoh instrumentasi sebagai alat kendali banyak ditemukan dalam bidang elektronikaindustri dan pabrik-pabrik. Sistem pengukuran, analisa dan kendali dalam instrumentasi ini bisa dilakukan secara manual (hasilnya dibaca dan ditulis tangan), tetapi bisa juga dilakukan secara otomatis dengan mengunakan komputer (sirkuit elektronik). Untuk jenis yang kedua ini, instrumentasi tidak bisa dipisahkan dengan bidang elektronika dan instrumentasi itu sendiri.
Instrumentasi sebagai alat pengukur sering kali merupakan bagian depan/ awal dari bagian-bagian selanjutnya (bagian kendalinya), dan bisa berupa pengukur dari semua jenis besaran fisis, kimia, mekanis, maupun besaran listrik. Beberapa contoh di antaranya adalah pengukur: massawaktupanjangluassudutsuhu,kelembabantekanan, aliran, pH (keasaman), level, radiasi, suara, cahaya, kecepatan, torque, sifat listrik (arus listrik, tegangan listrik, tahanan listrik), viskositas, density, dll.
Dalam perkuliahan ini akan lebih difokuskan pada Instrumentasi yang ada di Industri dimana utamanya sebagai pengendali suatu mesin atau yang lainnya. Komponennya berupa sensor-sensor yang disesuaikan dengan yang akan diukur atau dikendalikan.
1.  Fungsi Instrumentasi Pada Industri

Fungsi instrumentasi pada industri sangatlah penting, bias dikatakan bahwa instrumentasi adalah bagian integral dari industri karena tidak ada suatu industri tanpa menggunakan instrumentasi. Suatu Industri yang makin komplek maka instrumentasi yang diperlukan juga makin komplek.Hal ini berkaitan engan jalannya proses produksi pada industri tersebut dimana ketepatan dan keakuratan hasil menjadi hal yang utama.

Sebagai contoh dalam pengolahan material, ada banyak variable-variabelyang mempengaruhi proses tersebut. Untuk suatu proses nilai (harga) dari variable-variabel ini sudah ditentukan pada saat designnya,jadi jika pada saat proses variable-variabel ini berubah harganya maka jalannya proses tidak seperti yang direncanakan sehingga hasilnyapun tidak seperti yang direncanakan (kualitasnya).

Pada dasarnya instrumentasi mengendalikan proses pengolahan industri yaitu mengendalikan variable-variabel proses agar selalu berada dalam nilai-nilai yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya.

Sistem yang tak kalah pentingnya yaitu sistim instrumentasi yang disebut safe guarding system yaitu suatu system instrumentasi yang berfungsi mendeteksi variable-variabel proses yang berhubungan dengan peralatan proses, apabila variable-variabel tersebut tidak terkendali dan membahayakan peralatan proses maka system akan menghentikan poses dari pada terjadi kerusakan pada peralatan proses. Sistem safe guarding sangat penting dalam industri untuk menjaga terhadap bahaya-bahaya kebakaran atau kerusakan peralatan lain sepertimotor-motor listrik, mesin turbin dan peralatan proses yang lain. Yang termasuk safe guarding system antara lain :
  1. Safety valve
  2. Relief valve
  3. Alarm system
  4. Peralatan pengolah limbah, pendeteksi polusi udara
  5. Gas detector
  6. Flame cell
  7. Dll.
Oleh karena itu instrumentasi sangat penting dalam industri untuk menjaga keamanan.

2.    Variabel-variabel Proses
Yang dimaksud variable-variabel proses atau variable-variabel operasi adalah besaran-besaran yang mempengaruhi jalannya proses atau jalannya operasi, tergantung jenis dari jenis proses atau operasinya , apakah proses kimia, proses fisika atau proses nekanik.

1.    Variabel Proses Kimia:

1.    Tekanan
2.    Temperature
3.    Aliran (flow)
4.    Tinggi permukaan cairan (liquid level)
5.    Tinggi permukaan zat padat (solid level)
6.    pH
7.    Viscositas
8.    Dll

2.    Variabel Proses Fisika
Variable untuk proses fisika hampir sama dengan variable untuk proses kimia.  

3.    Variabel Proses Mekanik :

§  Speed
§  Rpm
§  Ireight
§  Torque
§  Power (tenaga)

Sedangkan mekanik yang digerakkan oleh listrik, variable-variabelnya :

·         Watt (tenaga)
·         Volt (tegangan)
·         Ampere (arus)
·         Frequqncy
·         Phasa
·         Dll,


Fire Fighting Sistem Sprinkler

July 8, 2011
URAIAN SYSTEM
  1. Wet Riser System : Seluruh instalasi pipa sprinkler berisikan air bertekanan dengan tekanan air selalu dijaga pada tekanan yang relatif tetap
  2. Dry Riser System : Seluruh instalasi pipa sprinkler tidak berisikan air bertekanan, peralatan penyedia air akan mengalirkan air secara otomatis jika instalasi fire alarm memerintahkannya.
–  Pada umumnya gedung bertingkat menggunakan sistim Wet Riser.
– Pada sistem dilengkapi Fire Brigade Connection yang diletakkan diluar bangunan.

PERALATAN UTAMA DAN FUNGSI

1.   Pompa kebakaran terdiri dari Electric Pump, Diesel Pump & Jockey Pump.
  • Apabila tekanan didalam pipa menurun, maka secara otomatis Jockey pump akan bekerja untuk menstabilkan tekanan air didalam pipa.
  • Jika tekanan terus menurun (misal glass bulb pada kepala sprinkler pecah) maka pompa kebakaran utama akan bekerja dan otomatis pompa jockey berhenti.
  • Apabila pompa kebakaran utama gagal bekerja setelah 10 detik, kemudian pompa cadangan Diesel secara otomatis akan bekerja.
  • Jika kedua pompa tersebut gagal bekerja, alarm akan segera berbunyi dengan nada yang berbeda dengan bunyi alarm sistim, untuk memberi tahukan kepada operator akan adanya gangguan.
  • Sistim bekerja pompa Fire Hydrant adalah “Start otomatis” dan “Mati secara Manual”.
  • Pada saat pompa kebakaran utama bekerja, wet alarm valve akan terbuka dan segera membunyikan alarm gong. Aliran didalam pipa cabang akan memberi indikasi pada flow switch yang terpasang pada setiap cabang & dikirim ke panel fire alarm untuk membunyikan alarm pada lantai bersangkutan.
2.  Pressure Switch : Alat kontrak yang bekerja akibat perubahan tekanan.
3.  Manometer : Alat untuk membaca tekanan
4.  Time delay relay : Alat relay yang bekerja berdasarkan seting waktu yang    
     sudah ditentukan.

5.  Safety valve : Alat pelepas tekanan lebih

6.  Pressure Reducing Valve : Alat pembatas tekanan

7.  Kepala Sprinkler (Head Sprinkler) :   Alat pemancar air yang bekerja setelah pecahnya bulb akibat panas yang ditimbulkan oleh kebakaran. Ukuran kepala sprinker 15 mm, kepadatan pancaran 5 mm/mnt, area kerja maks. 144 m2, laju aliran 725 lt/mnt dan setiap katup kendali jumlah maks. adalah 1.000 buah kepala sprinkler.

DIAGRAM SYSTEM

ff-sistem-sprinkler.JPG

Compare a Gas and Diesel Electric Generator

July 8, 2011
Benefits and Disadvantages of Different Types of Power Generators
Every power generator is not ideal in every situation. If you’re using a portable generator, you’ll need one that’s either gas, propane or diesel-fuel powered. A propane generator can also be used as a standby generator and hook directly into a large stationary propane tank. The other type of power generator is a natural gas-powered generator. This is a standby generator that will hook directly into your natural gas lines at your business and be used as a backup in case of electric failure.
Natural gas and propane generators present some risk because of their connection to those fuel lines. Because of that, they typically have several safety features installed like automatic shutdowns in case of overheating, high oil pressure or other problems, to prevent fires and explosions.
Gasoline and diesel-powered generators are the other two types that are available in both portable generators or for use as an industrial generator. A gas generator isn’t a good option as a standby generator, but a diesel-powered generator can be. Each has certain advantages and disadvantages in certain situations.
Benefits of a Gas Generator
Gas generators generally cost less than diesel models. They’re often more lightweight because they offer less power. The engines are larger but the other components usually are a bit less heavy. Gas generators are a good choice for small applications and for highly portable uses. Because gas is so readily available, the fuel is easy to come by. Gas, by the gallon, is usually cheaper than diesel fuel. Gas engines typically run more quietly than diesel engines.
Benefits of a Diesel Generator
Diesel generators are also powered by readily available fuel. Diesel is often more expensive than gasoline but because diesel engines use much less fuel, diesel is actually a more cost-effective choice. Diesel engines don’t use sparkplugs. That means not only will you be able to start the engine without worrying about worn sparkplugs, but there is no spark which means there’s less risk of fire and explosion than with a gas combustion engine.
Diesel fuel burns cleaner than gasoline and is less flammable. It doesn’t evaporate as quickly, either. So if your generator is going to be used infrequently, diesel fuel is a better choice because there will be less evaporation between uses, and storing the fuel means less risk of fire or explosion than with a petrol generator.
Main Differences Between Gas and Diesel
For business uses, diesel generators are usually the better choice. Not only will you find a cost savings in the fuel, but diesel engines break down less often and require less cleaning and maintenance than any other type of fuel-powered engine. Purchasing diesel generators that offer huge amounts of wattage gives you the option of using them for more applications than you originally planned. If you buy a gas-powered generator that can’t handle that kind of wattage, it’s not safe to use because an overloaded generator poses a great risk of fire or explosion.
Resource Nation provides free tools, tips, and purchasing advice for business owners and entrepreneurs in over 100Resource Nation provides free tools, tips, and purchasing advice for business owners and entrepreneurs in over 100 business categories ranging from  phone systems  to credit card processing. Whether it’s connecting businesses with local and national pre-screened vendors, or offering easy service comparisons on a  VoIP service, Resource Nation empowers business decision makers by providing the information they need to make smart choices.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=David_DL_Liu



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